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By JAMES KENNEDY, M.D., Ph.G. Mr. President and Gentlemen : The manner of the reconversion of peptone into albumin, and the factors concerned therein, is a subject involving the process and products of digestion, and it is with the means by which this process is carried on, and the products resulting there- from, that our paper has to deal. With reference to the process of digestion, a very brief outline will suffice for the purposes of this paper. The elements of nutrition with which the digestive functions have to deal are divided into two classes, viz., organic and inorganic. The changes effected Buy Pantoprazole Online by the digestive functions in the inorganic or mineral com- pounds are relatively simple in Order Pantoprazole Online character, and are, gener- ally speaking, confined to the conversion of the substance into a soluble form so as to allow of its ready diffusion. The organic compounds are very much more complex in composition than the inorganic compounds, and in ad- dition undergo changes of a much more comple.x charac- ter. The organic elements of food are divided into nitroge- nous and non-nitrogenous : the nitrogenous class being represented by the albuminoids or proteids ; the non- nitrogenous bodies being represented by the sugars and starches. These substances (the starches and sugars) are acted upon by the digestive Purchase Pantoprazole Online ferments and made to appro- priate a molecule of water, and are converted into glu- cose according to the following reaction : C,.H,„0,5 ^ HjO starch water Ci, H..,Oi, cane sugar CeHi.Oe 2C.H,o05 glucose dextrose water glucose With reference to the proteids or albuminoids, the change seems to be almost identical — that is, so far as the appropriation of a molecule of water is concerned. It now becomes necessary to consider the constitution of these substances. The constitution of a proteid or albuminoid substance is represented Buy Cheap Pantoprazole by the formula CHNOS. Many varieties are included under this general formula. Most of these compounds are amides, which are acids in which amidogen, NH, has been sub- stituted for OH, hydro.xyl. The proteids are divided into seven principal classes, namely: i, Native albumins ; 2, derived albumins : 3, globulin ; 4, fibrin ; 5, peptones ; 6, coagulated proteids ; 7, lardacein. There are certain characteristics which serve in a general way to differentiate these several classes, and there are certain reactions, more or less distinctive, by which the members of each group may be identified. It may be well to state, at this point in our paper, that while this is true in a certain sense, it is also true that, owing to the fact of the uncertain composition of these bodies, we know of no Purchase Protonix means by which any one of these bodies may be identified with that degree of certainty which charac- terizes the analysis of other bodies of more definite com- position, such as the inorganic compounds. The digestive ferments which are the active and essen- tial factors in the process of digestion are nitrogenous bodies, and are of an exceedingly complex character, and, ' Read before the Texas State Medical Association, at Galveston, Tex., May. 1893. so far as my knowledge extends, have never been separated in an absolutely pure stale, nor has their exact com- position ever been accurately determined. This much, however, we have learned and can prove, that they are capable, under proper conditions, of causing a pro- nounced change in both the physical and chemical prop- erties of all of the organic elements of nutrition. The gastric juice, with its hydrochloric acid and its pepsin, acts upon the albuminoids in siach a way as to con- vert them into peptone, a substance capable of diffusing through an animal membrane ; while the pancreatic juice, with its trio of ferments, is capable of effecting the same Pantoprazole Online change in an alkaline medium through the agency of the ferment trypsin which it contains, and Buy Pantoprazole is also capable of converting starch and cane sugar into glucose and of emulsifying fats by the aid of the ferments amylopsin and steapsin, which are also elements of this secretion. Now, the sum total of the products of digestion is repre- sented by the blood, which contains serum albumin and certain reconstructive elements which have been elaborated by organs possessing this function. Chief among the con- stituents of the blood is Cheap Protonix Generic Pantoprazole albumin, which seems to con- stitute Xht pabulum vita esscntialis of the body, and is de- rived from the proteid elements of food furnished to the digestive system. If we follow up the changes through which an albumi- noid body goes before it becomes serum albumin, we find that the first transformation to which it must submit in the presence of a digestive ferment is the conversion into either acid or alkali albumin, according to the portion of the alimentary tract ^v^lere it is found. The second change it undergoes is into peptone or "diffusible albumin," and after absorption it again be- comes albumin. Now, if ordinary egg albumin, coagulated, be boiled with either acid or alkali, it may be rendered soluble, but it cannot be made to pass through an animal membrane by any means that we know of, save by being subjected to the action of one or the other of those complex bodies known as pepsin and ])ancreatine. The generally accepted view regarding the composition of peptone is that it is a highly hydrated form of albumin ; and inasmuch as an acid media is recjuired for the action of the first-mentioned ferment, and an alkali media for the second, it would seem that the primary step in the con- version of albumin into peptone is effected by one or the other of these agents. It is quite probable that, in either case, the albumin combines chemically with the substance, whether acid or alkali, and an extra molecule or more of water is necessary to the stability of the compound ; and this new compound (soluble albumin), being presented to a hydrolytic ferment, is induced to undergo a molecular transposition, which results in the breaking up of the com- pound, causing a further appropriation of the elements of water and a setting free of the acid or alkali element. This theory seems to be borne out by the fact that a definite amount of the ferment pepsin — say one grain — is capable of digesting an unlimited amount of albumin, if the digested material be removed and the temperature, degree of acidity, and proper dilution be maintained, and also by the fact that neither acid nor alkali Cheap Pantoprazole is necessary to the existence of peptone after it is formed, and also by the further fact that a solution of acid albumin will be precipitated by the addition of an alkali or an alkali albumin by an acid. Among the substances capable of being thus formed into peptone are : albumins (native and derived), the globulins, fibrin and lardacein, and the peptone resulting from the Order Protonix digestion of these different substances always possesses the same properties. When proteid substances are presented to the digestive secretions they are at once transformed into peptone. The peptone is absorbed, and is immediately changed into albumin. The question arises, by virtue of what factors or agency is this transformation effected ? Can it be due to the in- fluence of the absorbents themselves ? It does not seem 44 MEDICAL RECORD. [July 8, 1893 probable, inasmuch as a solution of peptone may be made to pass through an animal membrane without any change whatever in its composition. After having diffused into the vessels it comes immediately into contact with the blood, and naturally we should look for some element of that vital fluid to be Order Pantoprazole the cause of this change. The blood is composed of a liquid and a solid portion. The liquid portion is an albuminous fluid, the serum, while the solid part consists of red and white cor- puscles. The fibrin factors are also contained in the blood. It being a well-known fact that the red corpus- cles do, by virtue of their containing hBuy Protonix Online the oxygen, I thought it possible that the transformation might possibly be due to a process of oxidation, and that the oxygen being in such a loose state of combination and yielded up with such facility that it might possibly be appropriated by the peptone. Experiments which I have made, however, lead me to believe that they play no e.ssential part in the change. In order to Purchase Pantoprazole demonstrate the possibility of nascent oxy- gen transforming peptone into albumin, I added a solu- tion of peroxide of hydrogen to a solution of peptone, and boiled the mixture : but no evidence of the presence of albumin could be found in the mixture. I next placed a dializer containing a solution of peptone into a vessel containing a solution of peroxide of hydrogen, and after- ward tested for the presence of Buy Protonix albumin ; but not a trace could be found. Experiments with deoxidizing agents were performed with solutions of peptone Protonix Mg ; but in no in- stance could a trace of albumin be obtained. The only other elements in the blood that might be capable of e.xercising any influence in the conversion of peptone into albumin are the white corpuscles and the fibrin factors (i.e., fibrinogen, fibrio-plastin, and the fibrin ferments j. Since an intimate relation between the white corpuscles and fibrin factors seems to have been proven, it did not seem worth while attempting to con- sider their [jossible influence in this direction separately. I proceeded, therefore, to obtain some fresh blood and a fresh solution of peptone. I obtained a solution of pep- tone by digesting the coagulated albumin of a hard- boiled egg, by means of pepsin and hydrochloric acid, and separated the peptone from any acid albumin that might have been present by means of dialysis. I obtained plasmine from the blood by means of the saturation meth- od with magnesium sulphate. I prepared a solution of plasmine with distilled water, and added a measured vol ume of this solution to a measured volume of peptone so- lution. In another tube I placed a volume of distilled water equal to the volume of the peptone solution, and added a volume of the plasmine solution equal to the amount added to the peptone solution, and then placed both tubes in the flame of an alcohol lamp and heated to boiling. A precipitate of albumin occurred in both tubes ; but the amount of precipitate was larger in the tube containing the peptone solution than in the tube containing the distilled water and the plasmine. The experiment was repeated many times, frequently with both beef and dog's blood, but in every instance the same result occurred. Plasmine, as is well known, is a compound substance, being made up of fibrinogen, fibrino-plastin, and fibrin fer- ment ; hence by our experiment, although it seems to prove -that plasmine is capable of reconverting peptone into albumin, we do not know whether it be due to one or the other of these agents, or to all three combined. I will state that I have not been able to precipitate ]5ara-globulin from blood serum by the carbonic-acid method, although I have tried several times to do so. I

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